The Pug has had many names attached to him in the course of history, and no one knows for sure where the name comes from. The word "pug" was commonly used in England in the second half of the sixteenth century. The first clear identification of the word with a dog occurred in the M. Bailey Dictionary in 1731, when the author wrote: "Pug, a nickname for a Monkey or Dog." Some felt the word "pug" was applied to the Pug dog because of his early appearances flattened face resembling that of a monkey.
Reverend Pearce, who wrote under the name of Idstone, and Rev. G. Ash both echo Stonehenge (I. H. Walsh) in his belief, stating that "pug" is derived from the Latin word pugnus, meaning the human fist, because the dog's profile resembled the shadow of a clenched fist. It is unlikely, however, that the word is derived from either Latin or Greek.
Milo E. Denlinger, in his book The Complete Pug, writes: "A far better hypothesis, probably the correct one, is that Pug is a corruption of Puck the mischievous fairy of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream and other early romances. Puck was sometimes known as Robin Goodfellow or Friar Rush." This derivation is suggested by Century Dictionary, the ethnologies of which are usually trustworthy. The puckish disposition of the Pug is undeniable. Further evidence that this derivation is correct is offered by the employment of the term "picked up" by some of the nineteenth-century authorities to describe the Pug's wrinkled face.
The Chinese, as we shall see in more detail later on, were known to call Pugs by several names, among them Foo or Fu dog, Lo-Chafing-See, Lo- Chafing and Pia dog. When the Pug was sent from Korea to Japan, it was referred to as Sichuan Pay. (Some writers assert that Dutch traders might have found this name difficult to translate and misinterpreted the Chinese language, syncope could have sounded like "pug.") And in Tibet the Pug was known as the Hand dog.
The Origin and Early History of the Pug
The short-faced common ancestors of the Pug dog--the Pekingese and the Lion dog-developed in the Orient. During the Shang dynasty (1751 to III I B.C.), the first dog judge, a dog feeder--or chancien- appeared, his official post dating back to 11 15 B.C. He judged breed type, quality and characteristics of different dogs, and it was during this period that Pugs were considered hunting dogs rather than Toys. (Later, in the Chou dynasty [800 B.C.], The Book of Rites divided dogs into three classes: hunting dogs, water dogs-and edible dogs!)
We first hear of the short-mouthed dogs in 600 B.C.--and they were pampered right away. The emperor's servants designed specially built carriages for the Pugs. They rode comfortably to the hunting place while the other dogs would walk behind the carriages. The purpose of the carriage was to save the Pugs' energy and conceal them from the popular before arriving at the hunting place.
Though his dynasty lasted only a short while (255 to 205 S.C.), Emperor Chin Shib managed in that time to destroy all the scrolls, records, an and materials pertaining to the Pug. These works, which provided important historical information, can never be replaced.
The Major Han dynasty (206 B.C. to A.D. 220) was marked by trade in silk, spices, Pugs and Pekingese to Western countries. The small dogs, now considered sporting dogs, were bred by the eunuchs and court officials for the emperor and other high officials. All were carefully guarded and had servants to care for their needs.
In the Tang dynasty, during the period of Tien Wu Ti (A.D. 673 to 686) and Ch'ih 'rung Ti (A.D. 690 to 696), Pugs, called Sichuan Pay (pronounced bai) dogs were frequently sent as presents, first to Korea and then on to Japan. Records show that Tien Ping of Shen Wu Ti (A.N. 732), the prince of the eastern Hsim Lo state, sent his envoy Chin Chang Hsun with forty attendants to Japan for an audience. They brought with them as a tribute one parrot, one thrush, one ass, two mules, one hunting dog and one Sichuan Pay dog. The Pay dog appears to have remained in fashion and became very famous. There is no doubt that the small dogs of Japan were procured from China.
In the reign of Hsi Tsoong, still during the Tang dynasty, a member of the Council of State named Wang To owned a short-legged Pay dog named Hua-Ya, meaning flowery duck. One night an assassin broke into the house through the roof but, upon being discovered by the Pug, was frustrated in his mission.
One of the most famous references to small, short-faced dogs in Chinese history concerns Emperor Ming of the Tang dynasty and his favorite wife, Yang Kwei Fei, whose beauty is widely acknowledged. One day the emperor was playing chess with a certain prince. Emperor Ming was losing. His wife, who was an interested spectator, dropped her pet Pug upon the board so that the pieces were upset and the game ruined, to the great delight of the emperor. This dog, white in color and named Wo (pronounced Waugh), came from the Kang country, one of nine kingdoms founded by Emperor Wen in the Pamirs. The famous poet Yuan Wei Ch'ih of this period was referring to this Pug when he wrote in Kang Hsi's dictionary:
- How fierce is proud Wo,
- Though still in his slumbers
Emperor Kang Hsi's dictionary refers to the character wo and states that this name was applied to a race of small dogs. The name was used toward the close of the Tang dynasty. The famous dictionary compiled under Emperor Kang Hsi quotes two old encyclopedias as considering the word pay to refer to: (1) a dog with short legs (quoted from Shu Wen: Han Dynasty); (2) a dog with a short head (quoted from Kwang Yun: Sung Dynasty. This authority states that the above character was also pronounced pia-pie in English); or (3) an under-table dog (quoted from Kwang Yun: Sung Dynasty).
The most important town in the province of Sichuan is Lo-Chafing. The Sichuan Pay dog from A.D. 950 was called Lc)-Chafing-See, Lo-Chafing or Lo-See. At that time existed the epoch of the five dynasties (Posterior Liang, Posterior Tang, Posterior Tsein, Posterior Han and Posterior Chou), the emperors of which were heavily involved in cultivating the true blood and brood type of the Lo-See dog.
History records that Emperor Kang Hsi's study at Peking was ornamented by three pictures cataloged as "Rocks, Cat and Dog," "Dogs in Play" and "Cat and Dogs." They represented small pet dogs of the Lo-Chafing breed. The captions on these paintings, "Yuan Chien Lei Han," cannot be accurately translated. They were painted by a native of Sichuan for the emperor reigning at Changtu during Ws period.
Also during this period, so careful was the breeding of the palace dogs that eight distinct primary species of the small, short-legged dog evolved, their differences appearing to be a matter of color and length of coat. The Yellow City was the home of thousands of dogs. Four thousand eunuchs, living in forty-eight sections of the palace, competed in producing remarkable specimens.
The number of Lo-See increased incredibly during the period of the Great Sung dynasties (A.D. 960 to 1279).
One of the most famous Lo-See dogs was named Tao Hua, or Peach Flower. Emperor T'ai Tsung received Tao Hua as a gift from a Sichuan official from Ho-Chow, which is about fifty miles north of Chungking.
Peach Flower, regarded by the emperor with the utmost esteem, followed him everywhere. This intelligent little Pug informed everyone of the emperor's arrival by his bark. When Emperor rai Tsung passed away, the heart-broken Peach Flower would not accept the new emperor, Chin Tsung. As a sign of mourning, the emperor commanded that an iron cage with soft, white cushions be made for Peach Flower. This cage, containing Peach Flower and the imperial chair, was carried to Emperor 'rai Tsung's tomb. There Peach Flower died. Emperor Chin Tsung, firmly adhering to the doctrine of Confucianism, issued a decree. It was ordered that Peach Flower be wrapped in the cloth of an imperial umbrella and buried beside Emperor Tai Tsung.
From this period onward numerous emperors showed a deep interest in the Pekingese, Japanese Spaniel and the Pug. Emperor Lung-Tu had such a tender regard for his Lo-See dog that he presented him with the official hat and belt of the literary Hosien grade--considered the highest literary honor of all time.
This emperor, in fact, raised quite a few Pugs. Male Pug dogs were given the rank of Kai-Fu (vireroy; ruling in the name of the king or queen with regal authority). The bitches equaled the ranks of the wives of high officials.
After the end of the great Sung dynasty, Pugs, Pekingese and other breeds became all but a memory. The Tartar dynasties from A.D. 916 to 1125 did not have much interest in dogs.
In the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1368 to 1644) cat breeding flourished, some of the Chinese emperors carrying their enthusiasm for cats to remarkable excess. The eunuch Liu Jou Yu said that there were three or four men, body servants of the emperor, whose special business was the feeding of those cats that had official rank or fame. Cats appear to have continued to be the favorite pets of the Chinese court ladies until the end of the Ming period, when they were replaced by small breeds of dogs.
It was during the Ming period that modern European traders first entered into trade relations with the Chinese empire. The Portuguese began trading in Canton in the year 1516, Spain opened trading in 1575, the Dutch in 1604 and England in 1634. The Spanish permitted the Chinese to trade with them at Manila, and the Dutch and English traded fint at Amoy and then in Forinosa.
From as early as the Sung dynasty, direct foreign trade with the Chinese capitals had been slight. Merchant caravans from the western frontier of China were allowed through, under the pretense of being ambassadors offering bribes to the Chinese emperors. They brought jade, diamonds and suitable merchandise for such an overland trip. In exchange they received lavish entertainment and presents far exceeding the value of their own. The Pug brought to Europe during this time became the root of European Pugs.
By the start of the sixteenth century, references to dogs in Chinese serous and literature were becoming frequent. Simultaneously, Japanese Spaniels and Pugs, which appeared in Italian paintings, were in big demand.
The printing of The First Imperial Dog Book was completed at the end of the seventeenth century. This book, and the others that followed, were intended to set the standards for all breeds of dogs. The illustrations, however, done by Chinese court artists, are not realistic, so we cannot regard them as authoritative records of exact breed type.
During this period, breeding small Pugs became the fashion and breeders were guided by "sleeve dog specifications." The dogs of the Royal Palace of the Forbidden City in Peking were never allowed to be seen by the people of China. But because the emperors and their ladies still wanted a tiny dog to pamper, play with and pet, dogs were carefully bred to such a size that they could be carried inside the wide sleeves of the robes of the ladies and the highest officials. This is how the term "sleeve dog" came about.
The average measurements of the Pug at this time, as converted from the Chinese, were: body, 7.8 inches; height of body, 1.8 or 3.5 inches; length of leg, 1.6 or 1.8 inches; tail, about 3 inches. The only dog described as a sleeve dog in some of the imperial dog books was a short-coated Pia dog of very small size.
The late Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi, who was known as Old Buddha, objected to artificial dwarfing of such small dogs. The empress, being an artist, was chiefly interested in breeding for color and in developing symmetrical markings on her dogs. Strongly deploring the development of abnormalities such as bowed legs or a protruding tongue, she bred for the white spot on the forehead and the saddlemark on the dogs' backs. Until her death in 1911, the empress was a brilliant breeder who was faithful in maintaining pure breed type throughout her whole kennel, and that kennel consisted of over a hundred dogs. She favored the Pekingese breed.
In 1860 British soldiers attacked the Imperial Palace, and during the occupation of the city many dogs were forcibly taken from their owners. In Peking, Pugs and Pekingese were sought after by dog fanciers from the west but not many of the palace specimens were imported to England until after the death of the empress dowager.
The imperial breeding of dogs had been made the sport of Chinese fashion. The Chinese occasionally crossed the breeds of the three races of dogs: the Lion, the Pug and the Pekingese. The lines varied because of the importation of new blood from various parts of the vast Chinese empire. For several generations breeders would find throwbacks, to a long-haired type or a short- haired Pug ancestor. Some of the dogs presented to emperors by officials and eunuchs in the palace were obtained by erm-breeding. At the end of the Manchu dynasty there were hundreds of dogs in the palace. Only a few were under the eye of their imperial masters; the rest were bred by eunuchs. The eunuchs bought or sold many among themselves, and they occasionally sold their best specimens to Chinese officials.
Collier, who wrote the great book Dogs in China and Japan, obtained important information from keeper
of dogs Wang Hou Chun, who had seventy-five years experience in the palace of Wu Yeh. This is his
opinion of the difference between the Pug and the Pekingese:
One of the most important characteristics of the Chinese Lo-See dog is, in addition to universal shortness of coat, elasticity of skin existing in far better degree than with the Pekingese. The point much sought after by the Chinese breeders was the Prince Mark formed by three wrinkles on the forehead with vertical bar in imitation of the Chinese character for Prince. This same character is distinguished by the Chinese in the stripes on the forehead of the Tiger, which, in consequence, is the object of superstitious veneration among the ignorant. The button, or white bl= on the forehead, was also encouraged in the L4o@See dog but was not of the same importance as the wrinkles. Other points, such as compactness of body, flatness of face, squareness of jaw and soundness of bone, are similar to those of the Pekingese, except as regards to the ears, which were small and likened to a @ffied half apricot, set with the outer face an the side of the head and pointing slightly backwards. The Chiao-tzu, or Hom-car, is also admissible. The legs are slightly bent at the elbow. The tail is docked by the Chinese, with a view to symmetrical form. The curly tail, however, is known to have existed See Kuo chu-erh and the double curl was also known.
The most admired and rarest of the breed was the Loong Chua Lo-See (Dragon-Claw Pug), which was short-coated except for the ears, the toes, behind the legs and the chrysanthemum flower tail, 0 of which were very well feathered. This appears to have been a rare that became extinct about fifty years ago. This Pug occurred in many colors and was bred as small as possible.
The Buddhist monasteries in Tibet are said to have favored the Pug as pets. This raises many unanswered questions that I am still trying to resolve. In the past few years I have received information from a source formerly of Taiwan concerning a secretly guarded Pug colony stolen out of China during the time of the Ming dynasty. This colony, which is still being raised after all these years, is thought to be located in Taiwan. They are supposed to be original fines and are still called Pia dogs. It is said that the pure lines have never been crossed, not even with the new blood introduced into Taiwan in the last few years.
I have also heard that some of the early writings on the Pia dog still remain in China and cannot be translated. These writings go back to the Hsia dynasty (2183 to 1752 B.C.). Many of these dialects are unknown to us and to the Chinese and cannot be accurately transcribed, since the same word can have many meanings. Some subsequent material was also found in Tibet and is in safekeeping with the Pug colony. My source claims and believes that the Pia dog was sent from the monasteries in Tibet to Lo Chaing and Japan.
To date, the Pia dog remains small and varied in color. The Pia dogs with the white "prince mark" on the forehead are still the most valuable and are greatly prized.
History of the Pug in Europe
Many canine varieties represent distinct breeds that are manmade and traceable. The Pug's history, however, reaches so far back that the earliest chapters are lost. The mystery of the origin of the Pug has not been solved. And after much research, I have learned that nobody really knows how the breed came to Europe.
Pugs in Holland
It is said that Holland was the first European country to see the Pug. It may be that the Dutch East India Company, which thrived on trading all over the Orient and Europe, was the fu3t to bring this wonderful little dog called the Mopshond back.
We do know that William III and Mary 11 came from Holland to England in 1688 to ascend the throne of
Great Britain, and they had Pugs with them. How many we do not know. When William landed, the Dutch
Pugs came ashore with him with orange ribbons attached to their collars, as symbols of the House of
Orange. These Pugs won the heam of the royal patronage in coum and their popularity increased rapidly.
They appealed greatly to the British, who at that time called them Dutch Mastiffs.
The Pug's association with the House of Orange goes further back than King Willigm. Sir Roger
WiWam's Action in the Low Countries, published in 1618, refers to an incident that took place around
1572. This classic story is about a Pug who saved the life of William the Silent at Hermigny and altered
the history of Europe. The story recounts a surprise attack on Dutch camp by Spanish troops led by
Julian Romero under the command of the Duc d'Alva:
For I hear the Prince say often, that as he thought, but for a dog he had been taken. Tle Camisado was given with such resolution, that the place of arms took no ahlrme until these feflowes were running in with the enemies in their tails. Whereupon the dogge, hearing a great noyse, fell to scratching and crying and withau leapt on the Prince's face, awaking him being asleep, before any of his men. And Albeit the Prince lay in his armes, with a lackey alwaies holding one of his horses ready bridled; yet at the going out of his tent, with much adoe he recovered his horse before the enemie arrived. Nevertheless one of the quiries was slaine taking horse presently after him; and divers of his servants were forced to escape amongst the guards of foote, which could not recover their horses. For truth ever sinm until the Prince's dying day, he kept one of that dog's races, so did many of his friends and followers. The most of all of thew dogs were white little houndes, with crooked nose, called Camuses [a French word meaning snub-nosed]. The Prince himself said afterwards, but for my little dog I should have been killed.
The little dog in question was named Pompey. It is said that he survived the battle and remained fiercely loyal and protective of his master's life. When the Prince eventually died, the dog defied the undertaker's men as they placed the prince in his coffin. Due to this dog's heroism, Pugs became the official dog of the House of Orange.
Quite a few remarks have been made about how "white little houndes could be identified as Pugs. The Lo-Sze dogs in China were heavily marked with white. Dalziel, in 1888 in his book British L@Qg@ writes that he saw almost white Pugs, and that a lady in London described one to him. He has also stated that he was informed that Mrs. Beswicke Royd's family for many generations owned a fine breed of Pugs, now lost. They had a pair that invariably threw one pure white pup in each litter. The eminent veterinarian Blaine records a similar instance in a Pug bitch of his own, which in three consecutive litters had one pure white pup.
It was fashionable to see the wealthy ladies strutting around the courts with their Pugs. William Hogarth's 1730 painting House of Cards shows a black Pug in the left-hand comer. Hogarth also owned a Pug named Trump; his Self-Portrait, showing him with a Pug, hangs in the Tate Gallery in England, and he used Pugs in other portraits. One is in the possession of the Kennel Club in England. This great artist was bom in 1697, and from his portraits we are able to know what the Pug breed looked like in the reign of William and Mary.
The wife of George III, Queen Charlotte Mecklenburg-Strelitz, fell in love with the breed during his reign (1760 to 1820). It is said that she main- tained a large kennel of Pugs. The royal Pugs had a great effect on the future of the breed. One of Charlotte's Pugs appears in the famous painting of George 111, at Hampton Court, England.
There were reports that George IV kept a Pug, and others claimed he had several specimens of the breed, but not much was heard about Pugs at the end of George's IV's reign.
In his book of 1867, Dogs of the British Islands, the aforementioned Stonehenge commented on the
cross-breeding of Pugs:
Due to strong and established lines of the Dutch, and to the dedicated people like Lord and Lady Willoughby, d'Eresby of Cirimsthorpe, Mr. C. Morrison and Mrs. Laura Mayhew they were able to save the Pug brew and again increase its popularity.
Pugs in Russia
Reports and rumors referring to the presence of Pugs in Moscow as early as the sixteenth century have never been conftrrned, although it is known that Emperor King Hsi sent a Chinese envoy to welcome a Russian ambassador who was interested in dogs; the emperor gave the ambassador one or two Pugs as gifts. There is also a story about Princess Provos Hedwig Sophia AugusM aunt of Catherine the Great, who loved and kept parrots. Ile princess supposedly had twenty Pugs and her parrots housed in a sin- gle room at Quedleberg Abbey. Near the abbey stood a large marketplace. Pugs were plentiful there, and could be purchased for the equivalent of ten cents each.
Around 1804, Taplin, writing in Sportsman's Cabinet, theorized that the Pug came to Europe from Russia. This book was subtitled: A Correct Delinea- tion of the Canine Race. Taplin, an arrogant man, failed terribly in giving his account of the Pug. Amusingly, he suggested that Pugs were produced by crossing the English Bulldog and the Great Dane. He wrote very disparagingly about the Pug, and widespread circulation of his book did much to hurt the popularity of the breed.
Pugs in France
The Pug was well known in the seventeenth century in France, but the breed had been seriously affected by crm-breeding.
The French name for the Pug is Carlin, taken from the play Harlequin of Carlin. The play's main character wore a black mask during the perform- ance. The black mask on the Pug was a characteristic feature of the breed at this time, and the dogs' facial markings were said to resemble Carlin's black mask.
Josephine Bonaparte played an important part in Pug history. On her wedding night when Napoleon tried to get into bed, her Pug, named Fortune, bit him on the leg. Later Fortune, while playing in the garden at Montabelia, challenged the cook's English Bulldog and was found dead.
Napoleon replaced him with another Pug, also named Fortune, who idolized Josephine--to the point where friends and visitors wished he could be more friendly to them. Later, when Josephine was imprisoned at Les Carmes, Napoleon hid love notes under Fortune's collar and the dog carried them to her.
Napoleon's brother, Prince Lucien Bonaparte, also had a large kennel of Pugs, in Canino.
Pugs in Portugal
The Portuguese theory on how the Pug arrived West may be a feasible one. The claim is that the Portuguese traders brought Pugs around the Cape of Good Hope from China and sold the dogs to the Dutch. Facts do prove that Portuguese traders were among the first to reopen commerce with China.
Pugs in the Netherlands
Many people feet that the Pug originated in Holland, due to the abun- dance of Flup found there. It is certainly evident that the Netherlands contributed to and had a big influence on the development of the breed in that country and in England.
After weighing the facts, I, along with other authorities, have come to the conclusion that the Dutch Fast India Company preceded the Portuguese and brought the Pugs to Holland from China. They were successful, knowledgeable traders, and they knew that Pugs, Pekingese and Japanese Spaniels would be in great demand in Europe.
Pugs in Spain
A magnificent painting by Goya places the Dogullo, or Pug, in Spain in 1785. The painting of the Marquesa de Pontejas features a well-put-together Pug with cropped ears, weahng his campanula collar (campanula refers to a genus of plants bearing bell-shaped flowers). The original painting is on display in the Andrew Mellon Collection at the National Gallery of Arts, Washington, D.C.
Within this same period, at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella, Isabella, the daughter of Phillip 11 of Spain, made a famous pledge during the Siege of Ostend. She said that she would not change her linen until the fort was taken. The siege lasted three years, and after all that time her linen was a brownish- yellow color. In France, because of her pledge, the coat color of the Pug came to be called "Isabellan." Also, Belle or Bella became popular names for Pugs during this period.
Pugs in Italy
The Cagantino or Camuso, meaning "Pug dog," became popular in the eighteenth century in Italy. Not much documentation is available, however, except for the writings of Mrs. ThraJe, an intelligent and cleverly amusing lady who wrote under the nom de plume Signora Pignora when she remarried. She recorded her travels in A Journey through France, Italy and Germany, pub- lished in 1789. In her book she mentions seeing the Pug in Italy a few times. She had to be well informed about the breed, as she refers to them as "a transplanted Hollander, carried thither originally from China.... They seem to thrive particularly well in this part of the world, the little Pugs or Dutch Mastiffs." Mrs. Thrale also tells the story of a countess's Pug who was run over. An Italian man told Mrs. Thrale that his wife had nursed this dog like her own child and that she was heartbroken over its demise. He told her this was a common practice, and that ladies of quality paid his wif@ for her milk. Mrs. Thrale thought this to be highly offensive.
In Italy, the social set had their Pugs, dressed in colorful little jackets and matching pantaloons, sit next to the coachman on the front seat of their carriages.
Pugs in Germany
During the early eighteenth century the Mopshond, Mops or Pug became popular in Germany. Meissen porcelain figurines give us an example of the Pug during that period, showing his cropped ears and bell collar. T'he managing director of the Meissen factory, Count Bruhl, himself had many Pugs, and those very dogs served as models for the figurines-now expensive collectors' items. Meissen's best customer was the Elector of Saxony, a Grand Master of Freemasons. In 1736, the Pope excommunicated the Masons in Germany, and they continued as the Mopsorden (the order of the Pug). The Pug became their secret symbol.
Breeders in Germany tried cross-breeding the Pug and the Miniature Pinscher during this period in an attempt to shorten the muzzles of other canine types.
Pugs in England
In 1790 the fad of cross-breeding slowed down. Due to a few dedicated Pug fanciers, Pugs remained pure.
Cropped ears were in style at this time. In addition, some idiot came up with the idea of pulling the Pugs' ears out by the roots, thinking the cruel procedure would improve the dogs' expressions and give them more wrinkles. Thankfully, the phase quickly passed and this inhumane practice was elimi- nated. Queen Victoria was instrumental in getting ear cropping itself banned in England. The Pug was one of her favorite breeds.
In 1860 the first show for sporting dogs was held in Birmingham. Pugs were permitted to be shown, but none were entered. At the second show, held at Leeds in 1861, a special class was arranged for Pugs. The Kennel Club was officially established in 1871, and its fast stud book listed sixty-six Pugs. Bloom, a Pug owned by a Mr. Brown, was the fu-st to win at a dog show, but there is no indication that this dog was ever shown again.
Two important types of Pugs, the Willoughby and Morrison strains, had been developed, and were rivals for many years.
Although few considered the WiUoughby-type Pugs, developed by lord Willoughby d'Eresby from Gemsthorpe, an asset to the breed, those who did boasted about them, and Victorian judges actually were instrumental in pro- moting the line. The Willoughby Pugs, stone fawn in color, were sometimes called pepper and salt because of their smutty coats.
In an attempt to improve the breed, Lord Willoughby went to St. Peters- burg and contacted a Mrs. Blonden, a lady tight-rope walker, who sold him two Russian Pugs. (Others claim he obtained a Pug from Vienna that belonged to a Hungarian countess. One of the dogs purchased from Mrs. Blonden, Mops, was bred to a fawn bitch, Nell, from Holland that had a shorter face and heavier jowl. Nell's attributes were just what was needed to improve the line, and the crowing of the two dogs produced a line of Pugs noted for their smutty, cold-stone fawn color with entire, or nearly entire, black heads. They had wide saddle marks or wide tram, and were tall, thin, and small in eye. These characteristics still appear in liftm today, indicating that Pugs are not yet free of the negative aspects of the Willoughby influence.
The Morrison line developed from a pure Dutch Pug. It is said that this strain descended from Pugs of Queen Charlotte and George III, who obtained their original stock from the continent. From this line Charles Morrison, a tavern owner from Walham Green, developed the Morrison Pug. The Morrison breeding program produced cabby bodies, rich apricot-fawn coats and lovely heads. Morrison and his two Pugs, Punch and TeM, are responsible for the improvement of the Pug breed.
After much selective breeding, the Morrison lines and the Willoughby lines were crossed and recrossed. Thereby, these lines became fused together as one, but breeders today can still recognize the individual characteristics of the two types of Pugs.
Another important development of the Pug breed came about in 1860. Two Pugs were stolen from the palace of the emperor of China during the siege of Peking, and soldiers or members of the embassy are thought to have brought them back to England. In any case, a Mrs. St. John received these pure Chinese Pugs as a gift. Laura Mayhew, a distinguished breeder and a friend of Mrs. St. John, was thrilled about the arrival of these Pugs from China, and had Mrs. St. John bring them to her home in Twickenham. The two Pugs, Lamb and Moss, looked like twins--clear apricot fawn, no white and beautiful heads. They were lovely dogs, although they needed a bit more leg and shorter backs.
Lamb and Moss produced a son, Click, and Mrs. Mayhew became his owner. Click, bred to many bitches produced top-quality Pugs, especially valuable bitches. The fresh Oriental blood interbred into the Willoughby and Morrison lines made their strains stronger. Click's lines were the finest produced in the nineteenth century and strengthened the Pug brew. In fact, in both England and America the majority of modern Pug dogs trace back to Click.
The first club for Pugs, the Pug Dog Club, in England was founded on January 26, 1883, with Miss M. A. E. Holdsworth as secretary. A few years later Charles Cruft became the club's secretary. From the knowledge he gained running the shows for the club, he organized the greatest dog show in the world, which is Cruft's. Shortly after the Pug Dog Club was formed, the standard of points for the breed, which Hugh Dalziel drew up, was adopted by the club. A few years later the London and Provincial Pug Club was formed. This society tried to draw up their own standard of points, but were unsuccessful in getting it adopted. Later Pug clubs included the Northern Pug Dog Club and the Scottish Pug Dog Club.
British Dogs, by Hugh Dalziel, second edition 1888, gives the actual weights and measurements of some of the top dogs:
Owner: Mr. S. B. Witchell-Young Friday: Weight, 14 3/4 pounds; length of leg, 6 inches; height at shoulder, 12 inches; length from forechest to stem, 12 inches; girth of chest, 20 inches; girth of loin, 16 inches; girth of skull 14 « inches; length of nose, 1 1/8 inches; girth of muzzle, 8 inches; width between ears, 4 « inches.
Owner: Mr. Hobson Key-Jumbo: Weight, 15 pounds; length of body, 12 « inches; height at shoulder, 12 inches; from ground to elbow, 6 1/4 inches; girth of skull, l2 1/4 inches; girth of chest, 19 inches. Owner: Mrs. P.R. Pigott-Judy: K.C.S.B. 5686 (registration number in the Kennel Club Stud Book); age, 5 « years; weight, 16 « pounds; height at shoulder, 11 « inches; length of nose to set on tail, 23 « inches; length of tail, 7 inches; girth of chest, 19 « inches; girth of loin, 16 inches; girth of head, 13 inches; girth of arm 1 inch above the elbow, 5 inches; girth of leg 1 inch below the elbow, 3 « inches; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 4 « inches; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6 « inches; color and markings, light fawn.
Owner: Mrs. Foster-Banjo: Age, 2 years; weight, 12 pounds; height at shoulder, 10 « inches; length of nose to set on tail, 19 « inches; length of tail, 5 « inches; girth of chest, 17 inches; girth of loin, 14 inches; girth of head, 12 « inches; girth of arm I inch above elbow, 5 lh inches; girth of leg I inch below elbow, 4 « inches; length of occiput to tip of nose- 4 3/4 inches; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6 3/8 inches; color and markings, cold-stone fawn with black ears and good trace.
Owner: Mr. E. Weekly-Vic: Age, 3 years 11 months; weight, 20 pounds; height at shoulder, 12 inches; length from nose to set on tail, 21 inches; length of tail, 8 inches; girth of chest, 22 « inches; girth of loin, 16 3/4 inches; girth of head, 12 3/4 inches; girth of arm I inch above elbow, 5 inches; girth of leg I inch below elbow, 4 « inches; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 5 inches; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6 inches; color and markings, apricot fawn.
With this information we can make a comparison study between the Pugs of 1888 and modem Pugs. Measure and weigh your own dog, using the same format. This will help you understand what all the parts of the Pug are about and how they fit together. Many new breeders today do not know how to measure the Pug. The Pug must be a square dog. Let's take a look at Mr. S. B. Witchen's dog Young Friday. Please note carefully: "height at shoulder, 12 inches" (measuring from the withers to the ground), "length from forechest to stem, 12 inches." Yes, Young Friday was a perfectly square dog. This is the correct way to measure a Pug to find out if he is square.
What does all this tell us? At a fast glance we can see that Jumbo is @6 inch too long in body. All the dogs' girths of arms and legs are I inch. This tells us they were all too fine in bone compared to Pugs today.
Around 1886 Pug breeders started to take the breeding of black Pugs seriously. The Tailor's Shop, painted by the famous Dutch artist Q. Brekelen- ham, proves that black Pugs were around as early as 1653, and The House of Caids; painted by William Hogarth, 1730, also included a black Pug. But the black Pug, born into a fawn litter,* was not valued by the early breeder; black Pugs would be culled as soon as they were born.
Laura Mayhew's son, who wrote about his mother's Pugs, mentioned seeing a lot of black Pugs born, and that his mother bucketed the puppies immediately.
Due to the lack of recorded information on the black Pug, many writers* said that Lady Brassey, a world traveler, brought the first two black Pugs into England when, in 1877, she returned in her yacht Sunbeam from China. Since authorities realized that there were black Pugs in England before her trip, few people believe she actually did introduce them into England. However, she certainly created interest in them. At the Madison show in 1886, Lady Brassey entered four black Pugs-Jacopo, Nap, Jack Spratt and Bessie Spratt-and they won, starting with Jacopo going first in his class. This dog show was very influential both in generating interest in black Pugs and in starting several kennels specializing in them.
It is said that the original variety of black Pugs stem from Lady Bra&scy's lines, since they were the first black Pugs on record in England. The Bra&sey Pugs Nap II, Jack Spratt and his daughter Bessie Spratt have gone down in the record book as the foundation stock of all black Pugs.
Also, interbreeding took place between the fawn and black, and it is no longer possible to have a pure black line of Pugs.
In 1905 Mrs. L. J. E. Pughe stated, "I have been frequently asked to tefl the history of the black Pug. Briefly I may say that they were first introduced into this country, England, by the late Lady Brassey and are supposed to have derived from a cross between a fawn and a Japan Pug."
Pugs in the Twentieth Century
In the closing years of the nineteenth century the popularity of Pomeranians, and then Pekingese@ grew and the Pug took a back seat for a while. But in the early decades of the twentieth century, several prominent Pug fanciers came along to promote the breed. They included Miss Neish, Mrs. Raleigh Grey, Mrs. F. HowelL Miss Rosa Little, Mrs. Prowett Ferdinand, Mrs. Benson, Mrs. Hampden Shaw, Miss SpurUng, Miss C. Smart, Miss Blanche Thompson, Mrs. C. C. Meese and Miss H. C. Cooper.
On my first trip to England I met Mrs. Blunsdem, a charming lady eighty-five years of age. I enjoyed the day at her home seeing all her wonderful Pugs. She showed me pictures and told me about the litter of blue Pugs that had been bred by Miss BeUamy in 1913, one of which is in the Natural History Museum. Mrs. Blunsdem also had a litter of three thirteen-week-old Pug puppies sired by a fawn dog and a fawn bitch. The bitch and one male were fawn and the other male was black. Her kennel consisted of fawns only.
I spent a few days with Mrs. Pauline Thorp, Cadarwood Pugs, and feU in love with Ch. Justatwerp of Cedarwood. I had the pleasure of having tea with Susan Graham Weall and her famous Phidgity Pugs. I also spent some time with Major and Mrs. Gibson and their Elmsleigh Pugs, and Mr. and Mrs. Elbourne and their Bournle Pugs. I met Nancy Gifford and fen in love with the Martiesham Pugs' heads. I was also lucky enough to meet with Mrs. Young, Rydens Pugs; Mrs. Coleman, Cerne Pugs; Mrs. Spencer, Pyebeta Pugs; Mr. Quinney, Adoram Pugs; and Margo Raisin, Paramin Pugs.
All are dedicated to the Pug breed and are doing everything in their power to try to breed quality Pugs
and maintain true breed type.
*Two fawns have also produced all-white puppies. Some breeders claim that this is due to the breed's Oriental ancestry, and that producing black or off-white puppies is a common occurrence. In fact, Pug breeders today should take heed, because it can happen again. return to text
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